​Landscape Reference Guide

The following is provided for informational purposes only and is only a guideline!
Willoway makes no guarantees as to the completeness or accuracy of the following.


Native, Adaptive Native & Wetland Plants

​The key to using native or wetland plants successfully is carefully choosing plants that will match your site conditions. While some native plants are tremendously adaptable to a wide range of environmental conditions, many are quite habitat-specific. Before you start selecting plant materials, know your site, including the exposure, soil texture, pH, fertility, moisture conditions, weed problems, and the history of use. The conditions will need to be similar to a desired plant's natural habitat. Some discrepancies can be corrected with soil amendments, mulching, fertilization, and other techniques, but these solutions may not overcome a poor match between your selected plant and site. The issue of native plants in the industry is sometimes confusing as to what is a true native and what is a adaptive native plant. The below list is a combination of several extension and industry lists of native, adaptive native and suggested wetland plants.

Acer rubrum
Acer saccharum 
Amelanchier canadensis 
Amelanchier laevis 
Aronia arbutifolia 
Aronia melanocarpa 
Betula nigra 
Calycanthus floridus 
Campsis radicans 
Carpinus carolina 
Carpinus betulus 
Celtis occidentalis 
Cercis canadensis 
Chionanthus virginicus 
Clethrea alnifolia 
Cornus alternifolia 
Cornus florida 
Cornus racemosa 
Crategus curgalli 
Crategus phaenopyrum 
Eleagnus augustifolia 
Fagus sylvatica and cvs. 
Ferns-asst varieties 
Fraxinus americana

Gleditsia tricanthos 
Gymnocladus diocia 
Hammamelis virginiana 
Ilex verticillata 
Itea virginica 
Juniper horizontalis 
Juniper communis 
Juniper virginiana 
Liquidamber styraciflua 
Lirodendron tulipifera 
Magnolia virginiana 
Malus spp.
Myrica pennsylvanica 
Nyssa sylvatica 
Oxydendron arboreum 
Parthenocissus tricuspidata 
Picea abies 
Picea pungens 
Pinus nigra 
Pinus strobus 
Pinus sylvestris 
Platanus x acerfolia 
Prunus virginiana 
Rhus typhina 
Rosa rugosa

Quercus alba
Quercus bicolor 
Quercus coccinea 
Quercus palustris 
Quercus rubra 
Quercus shumardii 
Rhodotypos scandens 
Rhus typhina 
Salix alba 
Syringa vulgaris 
Salix discolor 
Taxus cvs 
Taxodium distichum 
Thuja occidentalis 
Tilia americana 
Tilia cordata 
Tsuga canadensis 
Viburnum dentatum 
Viburnum dilatatum 
Viburnum lantana 
Viburnum lentago 
Viburnum prunifolium 
Viburnum trilobum


Plants That Tolerate Clay Soil

Trees


Acer campestre and cvs. 
Acer rubrum and cvs. 
Acer saccharinum and cvs. 
Betula nigra spp. and cvs. 
Crategus spp. and cvs. 
Eleagnus augustifolia 
Gleditsia Triacanthos inermis and cvs. 
Koelreuteria paniculata 
Liquidamber styraciflua and cvs. 
Malus most cvs. 
Picea spp. and cvs. 
Platanus x acerfolia and cvs. 
Prunus Virg. 'Shubert' 
Pyrus, most cvs. 
Salix, most cvs. 
Taxoium distichum spp, and cvs. 
Ulmus spp. and cvs.

Shrubs


Aronia spp. and cvs 
Chaenomeles spp. and cvs. 
Cornus sericea, racemosa 
Eleagnus augustifoliaand cvs. 
Euonymus, most cvs. 
Forsythia x Spring Glory 
Hamamelis most cvs. 
Junipers horiz. spp. and cvs. 
Juniper virginiana and cvs. 
Kolkwitzia amabilis 
Lonicera tatericum spp and cvs. 
Myrica pennsylvanica 
Pyracantha spp. and cvs. 
Rhodotypos scandens 
Rhus spp. and cvs. 
Ribies alpinum 
Rosa rugosa and cvs.

Taxus most cvs. 
Viburnum dentatum and cvs. 
Viburnum lantana and cvs. 
Viburnum opulus and cvs.

​Groundcovers & Perennials


​Aegopodium pod. 'Variegata' 
Ajuga spp. and cvs. 
Euonymus fort. 'Coloratus' 
Grasses, ornamental, most 
Hemerocallis, all 
Hosta, all 
Houttuynia cordata ' Cameleon' 
Juniper, Most low growing types 
Lonicera japonica 'Halls' 
Pachysandra Terminalis spp. and cvs.



Plants & Aerial Salt Tolerance
Varieties List

​This list is a suggestion of varieties and salt tolerances. This list is a guideline only and with the understanding that site variables, plant health and proper soil preparations may alter tolerance levels.

Trees

Plant


Acer Campestre
Acer Celebration
Acer ginnala and cvs.
Acer platanoides and cvs.
Acer rubrum and cvs.
Acer saccharium and cvs.
Amelanchier spp. and cvs.
Betula nigra spp. and cvs.
Carpinus betula and cvs.
Celtis occidientalis
Cornus alternifolia
Cornus kousa chinensis and cvs.
Cornus mas and cvs.
Fagus sylvatica spp.and cvs.
Ginko biloba and cvs.
Gymnocladus dioica and cvs.
Liquidambar styraciflua and cvs.

Tolerance


Moderate
Moderate
Moderate
Tolerant
Sensitive
Moderate
Moderate
Tolerant
Sensitive
Sensitive
Sensitive
Sensitive
Sensitive
Sensitive
Tolerant
Tolerant
Sensitive

Plant


​Lirodendron tulipifera
Malus spp. and cvs.
Metasequoia glyptostroboides
Nyssa sylvatica
Picea spp. and cvs.
Pinus spp. and cvs.
Platnus spp. and cvs.
Populus spp. and cvs.
Prunus and cvs.
Pyrus calleryana and cvs.
Quercus spp. and cvs.
Salix spp. and cvs.
Tilia cordata and cvs.
Tsuga canadensis and cvs.
Ulmus spp. and cvs.
Zelkova serr. and cvs.

Tolerance


​Sensitive
Moderate
Sensitive
Tolerant
Moderate
Moderate
Sensitive
Tolerant
Moderate
Moderate
Tolerant
Moderate
Moderate
Sensitive
Moderate
Moderate

Shrubs

Plant


​Amelanchier canadensis and cvs.
Aronia spp. and cvs.
Azalea evergreen, decidous and cvs.
Berberris thunbergi and cvs.
Chaenomeles japonica and cvs.
Cornus alba , sericea and cvs.
Corylus avellana and cvs.
Cotoneaster most cvs.
Eleagnus spp and cvs.
Eounymus alata and cvs.
Euonymus fortunei and cvs.
Forsythia x intermedia and cvs.
Hamamelis spp. and cvs
Hibiscus syriaca and cvs.
Hydrangea most cvs.
Hypericum spp. and cvs
Ilex all evergreen types
Ilex vert. and cvs.
Junipers most cvs.
Kolkwitzia amabilis and cvs.
Ligustrum most cvs.

Tolerance


​Tolerant
Tolerant
Sensitive
Moderate
Sensitive
Sensitive
Sensitive
Tolerant
Tolerant
Moderate
Sensitive
Moderate
Tolerant
Tolerant
Moderate
Tolerant
Sensitive
Tolerant
Moderate
Moderate
Moderate

Plant


​​Lonicera most cvs.
Magnolia hybrids and cvs.
Myrica pensylvanica
Philadelphus Virginalis and cvs.
Physocarpus opulifolia and cvs.
Potentilla cvs.
Prunus x cistena
Pyracantha and cvs.
Rhamnus fragula and cvs.
Rhododendrons most
Rhus most cvs.
Ribies alpinum and cvs.
Rosa and cvs.
Spiraea and cvs.
Syringa vulgaris and hyb.
Taxus media and cvs.
Thuja occidentalis and cvs.
Viburnum most cvs.
Weigelia florida and cvs.
Yucca fillmentosa and cvs.

Tolerance


​Moderate
Moderate
Tolerant
Tolerant
Moderate
Tolerant
Tolerant
Sensitive
Moderate
Sensitive
Tolerant
Tolerant
Moderate
Sensitive
Moderate
Sensitive
Sensitive
Moderate
Moderate
Tolerant


​Plants That Tolerate Urban Conditions

Shrubs

​Aronia arbutifolia
Berberis thunbergi and cvs.
Celastris scandens
Chaenomeles spp. and cvs.
Chionathus virginicus
Clethrea, all
Cornus mas
Cornus racemosa and cvs.
Cotoneaster cvs.
Eleagnus umbellata and cvs.
Euonymus spp. and cvs.
Forsythia spp. and cvs.
Grasses, nearly all
Hamamelis spp. and cvs.
Hibiscus syriacus and cvs.
Hydrangea most cvs.
Hypericum spp. and cvs.
Ilex crenata and cvs.
Ilex glabra and cvs.
Ilex x meserveae and cvs.
Iltea spp. and cvs.

​Juniperus spp. and cvs.
Ligustrum spp. and cvs.
Lonicera spp. and cvs.
Magnolia stellata and cvs.
Myrica pensylvancia
Potentilla, most
Pyracantha spp. and cvs.
Rhamnus spp. and cvs.
Rhodotypos scandens
Rhus spp. and cvs.
Rosa rugosa and cvs.
Salix spp. and cvs
Spiraea spp. and cvs.
Syringa x prestoniae and cvs.
Syringa reticulata
Syringa vulgaris and cvs.
Taxus spp. and cvs.
Viburnums, most
Weigelia spp. and cvs.
Wisteria sinensis and cvs.
Yucca filimentosa and cvs.

​Trees

​Acer sacharum and cvs.
Acer ginnala
Acer platanoides and cvs.
Carpinus betulus and cvs.
Celtis occidentalis and cvs.
Chamaecyparis obtusa and cvs.
Chamaecyparis nootkatensis and cvs.
Crategus spp. and cvs.
Eleagnus augustafolia
Fagus sylvatica and cvs.
Gleditsia tricanthos inermis and cvs.
Gymnocladuc dioca
Koelreuteria paniculata
Laburnum x wateri "Vossi"
Liquidamber styraciflua and cvs.
Liriodendron tulipifera
Malus spp. and cvs.
Nyssa sylvatica
Picea spp. and cvs.
Pinus nigra
Platnus spp. and cvs.
Populus spp. cvs. and hybrids
Pyrus calleryana and cvs.
Taxodium distichum and cvs.
Tillia codata and cvs.
Ulmus cvs. and hybrids

​The above list is from several professional sources and research projects. The list is growing due to new hybrid's that are being introduced into the industry. This rush of products is being introduced as part of the green movement.


Butterfly Gardens

​In creating a butterfly garden, you must provide a suitable habitat for the entire growing season. The preparation of the location and plant selection will increase your success and enjoyment of the garden. The butterfly garden should include: * Host plants for the larvae *Nectar plants for the adults *Water * Shelter from predators and weather * An open area where butterflies can bask in the sun.

Perennial Plants

Ageratum (Ageratum)
Aster (Aster species)
Bee-balm (Monarda didyma)
Black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia species)
Bugle (Ajuga reptans)
Coneflower (Echinacea purpurea)
Coreopsis (Coreopsis species)
Daisy, Shasta (Chrysanthemum maximum)
Daylily (Hemerocallis species)
False indigo (Baptisia australis)

​Gayfeather (Liatris species)
Goldenrod (Solidago species)
Hibiscus (Hibiscus species)
Joe-pye weed (Eupatorium fistulosum)
Passion flower (Passiflora species)
Phlox (Phlox paniculata, P. carolina)
Sage (Salvia leucantha; Salvia species)
Sedum (Sedum species)
Verbena (Verbena species)
Yarrow (Achillea species)

​Trees and Shrubs

​Buckeye (Aesculus parviflora; A. pavia)
Buddleia (Buddleia davidii)
Hawthorn (Crataegus species)
Mock orange (Philadelphus species)
Pear (Pyrus communis)
Plum (Prunus species)
Redbud (Cercis)
Rose of sharon (Hibiscus syriacus)
Spiraea (Spiraea species)
Summersweet (Clethra alnifolia)
Viburnum (Viburnum species)

​SUGGESTED LARVAL FOOD PLANTS: For Specific Types of Adult Butterfly

​Asters (Aster species): Pearly crescentspot 
Antennaria, Anaphalis, Gnaphalium: American painted lady 
Cherry laurel, black cherry, wild plums (Prunus species ): Tiger swallowtail 
Clovers (Trifolium species) and other legumes: Sulfurs, gray hairstreak 
Dogwoods (Cornus species) and viburnum: Spring azure
Elm (Ulmus species), willows: Mourning cloak, viceroy
Hackberries (Celtis species): Hackberry butterfly
Milkweed (Asclepias species): Monarch
Mustard family: Cabbage and checkered whites

​Native grasses : Various skippers 
Oaks (Quercus species): Banded hairstreak
Passion flowers (Passiflora species): Gulf fritillary
Paw paw (Asimina species): Zebra swallowtail
Pipevines (Aristolochia species): Pipevine swallowtail
Sassafras (Sassafras occidentalis): Palamedes swallowtail
Spicebush (Lindera benzoin): Spicebush swallowtail
Tulip tree (Liriodendron tulipifera): Red-Spotted purple


Plants For Hedges and Windbreaks
General Varieties List

This list is a suggestion of varieties that are used for hedges as well as a approximate height. The possibilities of course is endless and many other plants can be trimmed to fit into this category. When selecting a hedge or windbreak plant it is important to also consider soils, mature height as well as type of trimming that will be needed to maintain the desired design concept.

Plant


Acer campestre
Acer ginnala 'Flame"
Amelanchier cvs.
Aronia Arbutifolia and cvs.
Aronia melanocarpa and cvs.
Berberis thunbergi and cvs.
Carpinus betulus 'Fastigiata'
Cornus sericea cvs.
Cotinus coggygria cvs.
Crategus crusgalli cvs
Crategus phaenopyrum
Eounymus alatus 'Compacta'
Forsythia x 'Spring Glory'
Hibiscus syriacus and cvs.
Ilex x 'China Boy & Girl'

​​Approx. height


20-25'
12-15'
12-18'
6-8'
4-8'
3-5'
25-30'
5-8'
12-15'
15-20'
18-20'
8-10'
4-8'
8-10'
8-10'

Plant


​Juniper s. 'Witchita Blue'
Ligutrum o. regalianum
Ligutrum x 'Ibolium'
Ligustrum x 'Vicary'
Lonicera fragrantissima
Magnolia cvs
Picea spp. cvs
Pinus Strobus
Quercus r. Fastigiata and cvs.
Rhamnus frag. and cvs.
Syringa vulgaris and cvs.
Taxus spp. and cvs.
Thuja occidentalis and cvs.
Thuja plic. and cvs
Tsuga canadensis

​​Approx. height


​15-18'
5-7'
8-10'
5-6'
6-10'
15-30'
30-60'
50-60'
50-60'
12-15'
10-20'
8-10'
10-18'
10-18'
25-40'

​Formal Clipped Hedges

​This list suggests plants that will be able to take a tight regular formal trimming.

Plant


​Acer ginnala 'Flame' 
Berberis thunbergi and cvs. 
Buxus spp. and cvs 
Crategus crusgalli cvs 
Crategus phaenopyrum 
Eounymus alatus 'Compacta' 
Ilex x 'China Boy & Girl' 
Ilex x mes. cvs. 
Juniper virginana and cvs.

​​Approx. height


​12-15'
3-5'
2-8'
15-20'
18-20'
8-10'
8-10'
10-15'
12-18'

Plant


​Ligutrum o. regalianum
Ligutrum x 'Ibolium'
Ligustrum x 'Vicary'
Lonicera tatarica anc cvs.
Taxus spp. and cvs.
Thuja occidentalis and cvs.
Thuja plic. and cvs
Tsuga canadensis
Viburnum cvs.

​​Approx. height


​5-7'
8-10'
5-6'
8-10'
8-10'
10-18'
10-18'
25-40'
12-18'


Tables & Conversions

Planting Groundcovers & Perennials

Total Square FootageSpacing Of Plants On Center

 4in6in8in12in18in24in36in

504502001005022125
100900425225100452511
1501350650350150673716
2001800875450200905022
250225011005502501126228
300270013256753001357533
4003600177590040018010044
50045002225110050022512555
60054002675135060027015066
70063003125155070031517577
80072003575180080036020088
90081004000200090040522599
10009000450022501000450250100

​Coverage For Bulk Mulch and Other Products

Total Square FootageDepth In Inches

 1 Inch2 Inches4 Inches

500.20.30.6
1000.30.61.2
1500.50.91.9
2000.61.22.5
2500.81.53.1
5001.53.16.2
10003.16.212
15004.69.318
20006.21225
25007.71531
5000153162

*Formulas for finding area or square footage:

Circles

Triangle

Rectangles and Square

​Diameter x diameter x .7854

1/2 Length of the base x height

Height x width

Willoway Nurseries, Inc.
4534 Center Rd.
Avon, OH 44011
sales@willowaynurseries.com

​​Local: (440) 934-4435
Toll Free: 1-866-934-4435
Office Fax: (440) 934-4738
Sales Fax: (440) 934-5826

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